Now that hip-hop is one of the most popular genres out there, at least in North America, naturally, it comes with a variety of different sub-genres, one of those being the relatively recent genre of emo-trap music.\n\n\n\nSome of the bigger names in this particular area of hip-hop are XXXTentacion, Lil Peep, Trippie Redd, and JuiceWRLD. I would argue that these four artists are probably the kings of this particular style, or at least the most popular. \n\n\n\nIn this tutorial today, I'm going to show you how to make a sad trap beat in Garageband in the style of the three aforementioned artists. \n\n\n\nHere are the six steps for creating a sad beat in Garageband. We'll explore each one in detail.\n\n\n\nHow To Make A Sad Beat In Garageband \n\n\n\n1) Create a chord progression using minor chords from a minor key 2) Take the same chord progression and copy and paste it into an arpeggiator, synth, pad, or soundscape instrument track. 3) Add Snare and Claps on every third or 4th beats using the Trap Drum Kit, such as the one from the Drum Pro Plug-in. 4) Add the Kick. 5) Use 16th-note hi-hat notes and snare and hi-hat rolls 6) Boutique 808 notes that match the kick. Make sure they're on key. \n\n\n\nNow let's run through each one of these steps in detail \n\n\n\n1) Using Minor Chords from a Minor Key Signature \n\n\n\nFor this tutorial, we're going to explore some very basic music theory concepts but explained in a way that's easy for everyone to understand, with minimal jargon, so just bear with me. \n\n\n\nWe're going to explore two different concepts in this section, including the Plagal Cadence, as well as the importance of knowing how to use the minor scale and its accompanying chords. \n\n\n\nUnderstanding what these two concepts are will help you create not only sad beats but other kinds of sad songs as well. \n\n\n\nUsing Minor Chords \n\n\n\nIf you want to make a song sound sad or somber, a good thing to do is to just use minor-sounding chords. You don't have to learn music theory really, you can just google "minor chords," and you'll find a list of minor chords to use. \n\n\n\nEvery chord out there has a parallel minor, for instance, if there is a G Major chord, there is also a G Minor chord. \n\n\n\nIn many cases, it's just as simple as changing one note in the chord to make it minor, usually the third note of the triad. \n\n\n\nFor instance, a G Major Chord (G,B,D), can be changed to a G Minor chord by flatting the second note of the chord, B. \n\n\n\nG Minor: (G, Bb, D) \n\n\n\nThe Minor Scale and Its Chords \n\n\n\nThis is arguably one of the more important aspects of building a sad progression. \n\n\n\nThe minor scale looks like the following: \n\n\n\ni, ii\u00f8, III+, iv, v, VI, VII(7) \n\n\n\nThe order of major and minor chords look like this: \n\n\n\nMinor, Half-Diminished, Major (or Augmented), Minor, Minor, Major, Major (Dominant 7). \n\n\n\nIn the Key Of A Minor, these are the following chords: \n\n\n\nA Minor, Bm7b5, C Major (or Augmented), D Minor, E Minor, F Major, G Major (or Dominant 7th). \n\n\n\nTo make a sad sounding chord progression, you could pick three of the aforementioned chords and jam on them a little bit, until you have something that sounds good to your ears. \n\n\n\nFor example, JuiceWRLD's song, "Empty," uses the simplest chord progression of them all. \n\n\n\nThe track starts out on a variant of the A Minor Chord and then goes up to a variant of the C Major Chord, and then comes back to the A Minor again. The entire song revolves around this chord progression: i-III-i\n\n\n\nThe beginning of the song uses these two chords as the foundation, and then there are extra notes added in there with the piano in the beginning, and then, of course, you have JuiceWRLD's singing on top of the track and then the Boutique 808s performing another function. \n\n\n\nTruthfully, a song doesn't have to be any more complicated than that. You could easily just use two chords of a song, and then construct the rest of the music around those two chords, which is going to be what we're doing with the rest of this tutorial. \n\n\n\nHowever, before we go on to the next part of the tutorial, I'm going to show you how to use a Minor Plagal Cadence, which is another technique for making a sad sounding song. \n\n\n\nThe Plagal Cadence \n\n\n\nWhen it comes to making a sad sounding chord progression, the main thing is to use Minor chords and minor-sounding progressions. \n\n\n\nIn popular music, arguably the most common chord progression is the Plagal Cadence, which is a IV-I chord progression, or, in other words, the fourth chord of the key signature as well as the first chord. \n\n\n\nLet's say you start out with an A Major chord. The A Major chord consists of the following notes: A, C#, and E. \n\n\n\nIt looks like this on Garageband's Musical Typing: \n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nThose are the main notes of that chord. From there, you want to travel up by four notes and use that chord, which in this case, is D. \n\n\n\nThe D Major chord in the Key of A Major is the following notes: D, F#,A. \n\n\n\nIt looks like this on Garageband's Musical Typing feature: \n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nNow you know what a Plagal Cadence looks like. From here, what you want to do is actually turn the second chord in the progression into a Minor Chord, and then it becomes a minor Plagal Cadence. \n\n\n\nIn roman numerals, it looks like this: \n\n\n\nI-iv \n\n\n\nI = A Major = A, C#, E iv = D Minor = D, F, A \n\n\n\nTurning the D Major into a D Minor is quite simple, all you have to do is turn the F# into an F-natural, which means there aren't any sharps or flats on the note. \n\n\n\nA D Minor looks like this on Garageband's Musical Typing Feature: \n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nThis Minor-sounding chord progression is perhaps the most popular one out there and can be heard in all kinds of songs, including "I Believe I Can Fly," from R. Kelly, Radiohead's "Creep," and so on. It's incredibly popular and used all over. \n\n\n\nThe purpose of the Plagal Cadence, in this context, is not to be the foundation of the song, but rather, it's used to end the musical phrase in a particular way. \n\n\n\nYou could use a bunch of different chords in your progression, but if you throw in the Minor Plagal Cadence into the mix and end the musical phrase that way, you're automatically going to make a particular type of sound, notably, the sad sound. \n\n\n\nGoing from the minor iv chord and down to the Major-I chord will create tension and a particular expectation from the listener. \n\n\n\nTo summarize the purpose of this technique, just understand that using the iv-I progression is a way of ending a particular musical phrase in a way that builds tension and creates a sad sound. \n\n\n\n2) Copy and paste the chord progression into a new software instrument of choice. \n\n\n\nFor this section, all you have to do is copy the previous chord progression that you created using the (Command + C) function, and then paste it into a new software instrument track using the (Command + V) function. \n\n\n\nThe idea behind this is to add extra melodies and layers on to the track to make the original melody a little less bland. \n\n\n\nThis doesn't have to be the final melody or the final layer of the song, I just find that it fills out the track a little bit and helps me get in the groove of the track so I feel inspired enough to continue creating the song. \n\n\n\nIf you check out my article on The Best Garageband Instruments for Hip-Hop, you'll see I created an entire list of the types of instruments and sounds one can use. \n\n\n\nThe number of instruments you can use, find on the internet and download as a plug-in is mind-blowing and definitely worth looking into. \n\n\n\nHowever, for the sake of this tutorial, I'll mention just a few that I like to use: \n\n\n\n String Movements Sun Glitter Pads Breathing Vox Boarding Area Dripping Cycles Erratic Motion \n\n\n\n3) Use a Trap Drum Kit from the Drum-Pro Plug-in to add Snares and Claps \n\n\n\nThis is a drum-kit that I've mentioned on other occasions several times now, including in my article on how to make a trap beat in GarageBand, which you can access at this link here. \n\n\n\nAdditionally, if you're unsure how to go about downloading plug-ins, I recommend checking out the following article at this link here for learning how to install plug-ins. \n\n\n\nFor this section, the main thing is to add snares and claps on every third beat or fourth beat. This is the most commonly used snare\/clap in trap music. There is pretty much always a snare or a clap on every third or fourth beat. That much you can count on, for sure. \n\n\n\nIn "Maze," for instance, from Juice WRLD, there is a clap on every 3rd beat, and on "Empty," there is a clap on every 4th beat. \n\n\n\nHere's what a clap on every third beat looks like: \n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nHere's what a clap on every fourth beat looks like: \n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nIt's important to note that you should probably separate each part of them into a different software instrument track. \n\n\n\nThis allows for more customization for each part of the kit, including with EQ, Compression, and other dynamic processing plug-ins and effects. \n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nFor instance, if you want to a flanger on the hi-hats, or perhaps a bit of delay or reverb on the snare, just to fatten things up a bit, this allows you to customize the individual sound of the kit, without affecting the others. \n\n\n\nI would also mention that setting the BPM between 120 and 160 is a good move. The reason why setting it higher is better is that it makes it easier to create beats because there are more clicks to keep everything on time. \n\n\n\nAs a general rule, the more clicks there are, the easier it is to keep time, and the fewer clicks, the harder it is to keep time. \n\n\n\n4) Add the Kick \n\n\n\nThe points at which you add the kick is going to be up to you, depending on your individual taste. The kick and snare\/claps are probably the 2nd most important aspect of creating a sad beat, or any kind of beat for that matter because it's going to establish the groove. \n\n\n\nMany people have different ways of going about it. For instance, some people like to draw them individually, whereas others like to do it in a slightly different way. In my case, I like just hitting the record button and winging it and seeing what I can come up with. \n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nOnce the foundation of the kick has been created, I'll go back through and time quantize it to around 1\/16 notes, that way all of the slightly off-timed notes are snapped back to the gridline. \n\n\n\nAfter you've laid down the majority of the kicks, I would keep them panned to the center of the mix, because that's typically where the kick sits in the mix in most hip-hop songs. \n\n\n\nIn Jazz, and other genres, it can vary quite a lot, but for the most part, in rap music, the kick is always front and center, or perhaps very slightly to the left or right. \n\n\n\n5) Use 16th-note hi-hat notes and snare and hi-hat rolls \n\n\n\nThis is arguably the easiest part of creating a beat because the vast majority of the notes will be the same. For instance, the song will have four hi-hats per beat, which means that it's a 1\/16 note. \n\n\n\nWhat you do, is you just create a hi-hat note on every other grid-line, and then copy and paste them all the way until the end of the workspace until you have an entire hi-hat section. \n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nTo create hi-hat rolls, the process is quite simple, you just have to create around 2-3 additional hi-hat notes in the space where they would usually be one. You can get really creative with this. For instance, you could have a long line of them, around 6 notes if you wanted, or occasionally just three. \n\n\n\nIt's really up to you. \n\n\n\nFor Snare rolls, the same principle applies, however, the Drum Pro plug-in doesn't offer different kinds of snares, there is only one really. You might have to find a different drum kit if you want to make these types of rolls. \n\n\n\nAdditionally, what you want to do is adjust the velocity of each note by however much you choose. This will make some parts of the hi-hats hit harder than others. \n\n\n\nThe same principle applies to snare rolls. \n\n\n\n6) Boutique 808 notes that match the kick. Make sure they're on key. \n\n\n\nThe same principle applies to build a bassline for making the melody, albeit slightly different. \n\n\n\nWhat I do, Is I just figure out the key signature of the song and the accompanying scale, and then I map out how that looks on the keyboard and then I just jam and see what sounds good. \n\n\n\nFor this section, what I like to do is start out with a bass guitar set at about C3 or C4, that way I ensure the notes are actually on key, and then once the bassline has been created, I make sure that almost every note falls on the kick, that way the bass and the kick slam together and you get that hard-hitting bassline that so many people love. \n\n\n\nAfter that, you can either change it to a Deep Sub Bass synthesizer and drop the octave down to C2.\n\n\n\nPerhaps the most important of creating the bassline is the mixing of the instrument. For instance, adding compression and distortion to the boutique 808 is the difference between having slammin' 808s or ones that aren't-so slamming. \n\n\n\nAdditionally, you want to let the notes ring out on the boutique 808s that way they actually have time to boom properly. \n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nMoreover, as I mentioned above, you want your 808s to hit on the same notes on the Kick, perhaps not in all cases, but in many cases. If you want to read more about how to create a bass-line using Garageband, I recommend checking out the article at this link here. \n\n\n\nYou can also check out my list of tips for boutique 808s here. \n\n\n\nTo hear the final product of what I created, go ahead and check out the YouTube video tutorial below: \n\n\n\nYouTube Video Tutorial \n\n\n\n\nhttps:\/\/www.youtube.com\/watch?v=TMSLCN-GQng&t=194s\n\n\n\n\nConclusion\n\n\n\nI hope this article was helpful to you. Make sure to share it on your social media with your friends, I'd appreciate that a lot.